About the Authors

Jessica Oesterheld, M.D. is a graduate of Mount Holyoke College and Tufts Medical School and completed residencies in General, College and Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.

She has been a cytochrome maven since 1992. Her interest arose from clinical experiences with patients with side effects based on CYP-based drug interactions. She has authored the following books, papers or chapters that review cytochromes and their development and interactions.

Wyne G, Cozza K, , Oesterheld JR.  Drug Interactions: Principles for Medical Practice 3nd edition, American Psychiatry Press Inc, Washington DC, 2009

Oesterheld JR, Cozza K, Sandson NB. Oral contraceptives,Psychosomatics. 2008 Mar-Apr;49:168-75.
Oesterheld, JR , Shader RI,  Martin A. and Scahill, L, Oesterheld, JR and Martin, A Pharmacokinetic chapter and Psychopharmacology chapter in Lewis’  Textbook of Child Psychiatry fourth edition, Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia , 2007

Cozza K, Armstrong SC, Oesterheld JR. Study Guide to Clinical Psychopharmacology: A Companion to the American Psychiatric Publishing Text of Psychopharmacology, APPI 2006

Cozza K, Armstrong S, Oesterheld JR et al. Drug interactions in Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry chapter in Blumenthal and Strain: Textbook of Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry, American Psychiatric Press Inc, 2006

Wynn GH, Zapor MJ, Smith BH, Wortmann G, Oesterheld JR, Armstrong SC, Cozza KL. Antiretrovirals, part 1: overview, history, and focus on protease inhibitors. Psychosomatics. 2004 May-Jun;45:262-70.

Oesterheld JR, Armstrong SC, Cozza KL. Ecstasy: pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions. Psychosomatics. 2004 Jan-Feb;45:84-7.

Oesterheld JR, Parmalee D, Shader RI: Child Psychiatry in Manual of Psychiatric Therapeutics third edition, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins Philadelphia, 2003

Oesterheld JR, UGTs for Clinicians. Psychosomatics 2002

Oesterheld JR and Flockhart DA : Hepatic P450 Cytochromes-Based Drug Interactions in: Textbook of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Oxford University Press 2002

Martin A, Oesterheld J et al: Basic Psychopharmacology in Melvin Lewis (ed) Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: A Comprehensive Textbook, third edition Lippincott Williams and Wilkins Philadelphia, 2002

Oesterheld JR and Martin A: Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology in Curriculum for Teaching Psychiatric Residents: American Society of Clinical Pharmacology, 2001

Oesterheld JR: Oral contraceptives in: The Cytochromes P450 System Cozza and Armstrong (eds) American Psychiatric Association Press , Washington, 2001

Shader RI and Oesterheld JR: (editorial):Contraceptive Effectiveness: cytochromes and induction: J Clin Psychopharmacol 20:119-121, April 2000

Flockhart D, Oesterheld JR: P450 cytochromes and Drug Interactions. Child and Adolesc Psychiatric Clinics of North America 9:43-76, 2000

Oesterheld JR, Osser DA: Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: CYP-based drug interactions. Journal of Practical Psychiatry and Behavioral Health 5:179-183, May 1999

Oesterheld JR: A Review of Developmental Aspects of Cytochrome P450. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 8: 8:161-174, 1998

Oesterheld, JR and Shader RI: Cytochromes: A Primer for Child Psychiatrists, J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 37:447-450, April 1998

Oesterheld, JR and Kallapelli R: Clomipramine and grapefruit juice: changing the metabolitic ratio. (letter to editor) J Clin Psychopharmacol 17:62-63 February 1997

Oesterheld JR : Erythromycin and Clomipramine: noncompetitive inhibition of demethylation (letter to editor) J Child Adolescent Psychopharmacol 6:211-12, November 1996

Oesterheld JR: TCA cardiotoxicity: the latest (letter to the editor) J of Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 35:701-702, June 1996

David N. Osser, M.D. is a national, and international consultant in clinical psychopharmacology with over 25 years of experience in a wide variety of settings. He is most well known for the development of systematic, comprehensive algorithmic pathways for evidence-supported psychopharmacological treatment of depressive, psychotic, and anxiety disorders. In collaboration with Robert Patterson, M.D., these algorithms have been produced in an Internet-based “virtual psychopharmacology consultation” interactive computer format. These may be found at the web site www.mhc.com/Algorithms. In October 2001 this web site won a Kanter Foundation Award for “journalists who foster knowledge about the benefits of collecting and standardizing data on health outcomes, so patients and clinicians can use scientific, evidence-based information to guide their treatment decisions.”

Dr. Osser is an associate professor of psychiatry at Harvard Medical School. He is an author of more than 50 academic products, including journal articles, software, monographs, book chapters, and abstracts. He received four awards for outstanding teaching, and two Exemplary Psychiatrist awards from the National Alliance for the Mentally Ill (NAMI) and from the Massachusetts chapter of NAMI. He has been on the staff of Taunton State Hospital for over 25 years and currently is Director of the Psychopharmacology Consultation Service and Director of Medical Practice Evaluation and Management. He is also on the staff of the Brockton Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, where he is the Psychiatrist for the Domiciliary program for homeless veterans. He is also President of the Massachusetts Psychiatric Society, a district branch of the American Psychiatric Association.

Dr. Osser is a member of the International Psychopharmacology Algorithm Project, directed by Kenneth Jobson, M.D. Under their auspices, he has presented his algorithms and software in Japan and China in the past several years. He has been named an “Honorary International Advisory Member of the Chinese Psychopharmacology Algorithm Project with gratitude from the Beijing University Institute of Psychiatry and the Ministry of Health of the People’s Republic of China.”

He lives in Needham, Massachusetts with his wife Stephanie, two children, Rosie (19) and Daniel (16), and two turtles, Hypotenuse 4.0 and Hypotenuse 5.0.

Neil B. Sandson, M.D. is Director of the Psychopharmacology Consultation Service and the Director of the Division of Education and Residency Training at Sheppard Pratt Hospital, Baltimore Maryland. He graduated from Amherst College and then the University of Maryland with an M.D. His residency was at Sheppard Pratt. Dr. Sandson is an examiner for the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology and is a Clinical Assistant Professor of Psychiatry at the University of Maryland.

His professional interests include the cytochrome P450 system, drug-drug interactions, mechanisms of action of psychotropic agents and teaching.


Sandson, NB: Drug Interactions Casebook: The Cytochrome P450 System and Beyond. Arlington, VA, American Psychiatric Publishing Inc., May 2003.

Sandson NB: Exploring Drug Interactions in Psychiatry. Psychiatric Times 21(5):44-48, 2004
Sandson NB: Perspectives on Psychopharmacology – Drug Interactions: A Tangled Web We Weave (Part II). The Maryland Psychiatrist, Spring 2004, 30(3):5, 14, 2004
Sandson NB: Drug-Drug Interactions: The Silent Epidemic. Psychiatric Services, in press.
Sandson NB: Perspectives on Psychopharmacology – Drug Interactions: A Tangled Web We Weave (Part I). The Maryland Psychiatrist, Winter 2003/04, 30(2):4, 9, 2004
Lachner C, Sandson NB: Medical Complications of Catatonia: A Case of Catatonia-Induced Deep Venous Thrombosis. Psychosomatics 44(6):512-4, 2003.
Lindsey RL, Kaplan D, Koliatsos V, Walters JK, Sandson, NB: Aripiprazole and extrapyramidal symptoms. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 42(11):1268-9, 2003.
Sandson NB: Perspectives on Psychopharmacology – Aripiprazole: Possibilities and Pitfalls. The Maryland Psychiatrist, Fall 2003, 30(1):8,12-13.
Armstrong SC, Cozza KL, Sandson NB: Med-Psych Drug-Drug Interactions Update: Six Patterns of Drug-Drug Interactions. Psychosomatics 44(3):255-258, 2003.
Sandson NB: Drug Interactions: A Tangled Web We Weave (Part II). M.D. Today – GBMC Health Care, May/June 2003, p. 5.

Gabriel Eckermann, M.D.

Medical Education

1981 Doctor of Medicine, the University of Munich, Germany

Postgraduate Education

1982 – 1988: General Psychiatry internship and residency at District Clinic for Psychiatry and Neurology in Kaufbeuren (Bavaria): Germany


Since 1982: Psychiatrist at Bezirkskrankenhaus Kaufbeuren, District Clinic for Psychiatry and Neurology in Kaufbeuren (Bavaria), Germany (Specialty Clinic for Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Neurology)

Since 1986: Has regularly conducted continuing education courses in psychopharmacology for employees of Bavarian District Hospitals and University Clinics

Since 1988: Senior Consultant in psychiatry at District Clinic for Psychiatry and Neurology in Kaufbeuren (Bavaria), Germany

Since 1990: Responsible for drug safety in psychiatry in District Clinic for Psychiatry and Neurology in Kaufbeuren (Bavaria), Germany

Since 1995: Senior Consultant in psychopharmacology for eight hospitals for psychiatry, neurology and psychotherapy in the southern area of Bavaria

Since 1995: Lectures on drug-drug interactions, Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM), Pharmacogenetics and drug safety in Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Norway, UK, USA

2001: Founder and Head of the plasma-level-testing laboratory for psychotropic drugs at the District Clinic for Psychiatry and Neurology in Kaufbeuren (Bavaria), Germany

2006: Coeditor (with Prof. C. Hiemke, Prof. E. Haen, Dr. M. Dobmeier) of a drug-drug interactions program for psychopharmacology in German: www.psiac.de

Psychiatric drug safety in Bavaria (an alliance of about 30 psychiatric hospitals in Bavaria):
A Drug Safety Program in Germany/Switzerland/Austria

Therapeutic Drug Monitoring scientific group in Germany/Switzerland/Austria (led by Prof. Christoph Hiemke)

National Committee for Drugs of German Physicians, working in the group responsible for adverse drug reactions: focus on drug-drug interactions

Psychopharmacology focus:
– Drug Drug Interactions
– Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
– Drug Safety
– Pharmacogenetics: Polymorphisms
– Medicolegal Implications of Drug Drug Interactions